Present Factors

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Bloom (2010) Global Climate Change: Convergence of Disciplines, Sinauer Assoc.

Forcing factors are environmental processes that influence Earth's climate. They may be external to Earth and its atmosphere or may be internal to the planet and its atmosphere.

Earth's annual energy budget. Values are in watts per square meter. Arrows indicate the direction of energy flow. Based on the estimates of Trenberth et al. (2008)


External Forcing

Human Factors

Internal Forcing

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