Environmental & Earth Science

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Earth science is a well-established area of knowledge that studies the Earth from various scientific perspectives. Earth scientists often employ investigative approaches that more properly belong to the disciplines of biology, chemistry, physical geography, physics, and mathematics. Earth science can also study the nature phenomena of our planet from either reductionist or holistic vantage points. Some sub-disciplines of earth science include: environmental science, geology, geophysics, glaciology, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, physical geography, and soil science.

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Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little? Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little Scientists and artists collaborate on accompanying works to address looming environmental issue Fertilizer is rarely an inspiration... More »

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Richter scale (Environmental & Earth Science) The Richter scale (or Richter magnitude scale or local magnitude [ML]) scale) is a measure of the magnitude of (or more specificifically the energy released by) an earthquake that... More »

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Tuberculosis environment linkage This article, written by Charles W. Schmidt, a freelance writer specializing in science, medicine and technology, appeared first in Environmental Health Perspectives—the... More »

National Forest System (NFS) Roadless Area Initiatives Roadless areas in the U.S.National Forest System (NFS) have received special attention for decades. Many want to protect their relatively pristine condition; others want to use the areas in more developed ways. Two different roadless area policies have been offered in the last decade. On January 12, 2001, the Clinton Administration’s roadless area policy established a nationwide approach to managing roadless areas in the National Forest System to protect their pristine conditions. The Nationwide Rule, as it will be called in this report, generally prohibited road construction and reconstruction and timber harvesting in 58.5 million acres of inventoried roadless areas, with significant exceptions. The Bush Administration initially postponed the effective date of the Nationwide Rule, then issued its own rule that allowed states to plan how roadless areas were managed. It issued a... More »

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Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), located in Los Alamos, New Mexico, is one of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories. It is noteworthy as the site where the world's first nuclear weapon was developed under a heavy cloak of secrecy during World War II, and has been known variously as Site Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Today, it is recognized as one of the world's leading science and technology institutes. Since June 2006, LANL has been managed and operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS).[1] LANL's self-stated mission is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear deterrent.[2] Its research work serves to advance bioscience, chemistry, computer science, Earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. The Manhattan Project was the... More »

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Miocene (Environmental & Earth Science) The Miocene Epoch refers to a span of geologic time from 5.3 million to 23.0 million years ago. Figure 1 shows the major geologic epochs of the Cenozoic Era and the relative position of the Miocene. The Miocene was first recognized and defined by Charles Lyell in the early nineteenth century. While examining rocks in the Paris Basin, he noted that different strata contained varying percentages of living mollusc species. The Miocene consisted of layers in which only 18% of the fossils were represented among living mollusc species. Stratigraphy within the Miocene, as with much of the Cenozoic, is often defined on a highly regional basis. Terrestrial faunas are recognized in ages that vary from continent to continent, primarily because the animals themselves varied from place to place. These ages are usually defined on the basis of the land mammals, so that North America,... More »

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Public Health Statement for Atrazine This article is a verbatim version of the original and is not available for edits or additions by EoE editors or authors. Companion articles on the same topic that are editable may exist within the EoE. September 2003 En Español CAS#: 1912-24-9 This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Atrazine. It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. A shorter version, the ToxFAQs™, is also available. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This public health statement tells you about atrazine and the... More »

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St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks are a set of small rocky islands far out in the Atlantic Ocean between Brazil and the coast of West Africa. In particular, there are five islets, five very large rocks and a series of smaller skerries that comprise this formation. (Thompson. 1981) The rock type of this formation, also known as St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, is ultramafic and not volcanic. The archipelago is claimed as a national territory of the nation of Brazil, who maintains a permanent manned station here. This is one of the few places on Earth where an underwater oceanic ridge breaks through the surface of the sea. This formation can be viewed as the second tallest deep sea mountain, also known as a deep-ocean-complex or megamullion. These isolated rocks function as a type of oasis in... More »