From The Encyclopedia of Earth
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Humans may devote resources to deal with climate changes that are already unavoidable, including improving levees to withstand rising sea levels, designing buildings to handle higher temperatures, and constructing dams to store water that previously was held in mountain snowpacks.
Satellite image of the southwest coast of the Netherlands, where sediment-carrying rivers have created a massive delta of islands and waterways in the gaps between coastal dunes. After unusually severe spring tides devastated this region in 1953, the Dutch built an elaborate system of dikes, canals, dams bridges, and locks to hold back the North Sea. NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team
- Featured News Article America's Climate Choices
A report released May 12, 2011, from the National Research Council reiterates the pressing need for substantial action to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare... More »
</div></div> Article: CDM - Clean Development Mechanism Last Updated on 2011-06-14 00:00:00 The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the market-based mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol used by Countries with commitments under the Protocol to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in order to meet their emission targets. It has been operational since the beginning of 2006. As of mid-2011, there were 6,292 projects in the CDM pipeline (see CDM project cycle below). Renewable energy projects account for nearly two-thirds of CDM projects and include such things as hydro, wind and biomass projects. Methane avoidance, landfill gas, afforestation and reforestation, and energy efficiency projec are also common CDM projects. CDM projects are extremely similar to Joint Implementation (JI) projects, another of the market-based mechanisms under the Jyoto Protocol, with one major distinction: where the project is based. Under JI, an industrialized country... More » America's Climate Choices Last Updated on 2011-05-12 00:00:00 A report released May 12, 2011, from the National Research Council reiterates the pressing need for substantial action to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare to adapt to its impacts. America's Climate Choices, which builds on the four previous America's Climate Choices panel reports, reaffirms that the preponderance of scientific evidence points to human activities as the most likely cause for most of the global warming that has occurred during the last several decades. Furthermore, the risk of dangerous climate change impacts is growing with every ton of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. America's Climate Choices makes the case for implementing strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. This title is part of the America's... More » Colorado River water supply Last Updated on 2010-07-28 00:00:00 This curriculum module will look at the Colorado River water supply, climate issues and water extraction issues. We will study the data, the possible consequences to various user groups, and suggest solutions toadapt to and mitigatethese changes. GOALS Students will see how a changed climate can impact urban development, food security, regional economies, international relations, as well as the natural environment. Students will be able to see how adaptation strategies and different from mitigation strategies and how these strategies can help minimize the impacts and make the Southwest region more sustainable. Part One Figure 1. NASA MODIS image of the Colorado River watershed. Source: NASA The first part of the assignment is to become acquainted with the Colorado River watershed as shown... More » IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group II: Chapter 17 Last Updated on 2010-04-05 00:00:00 Table of Contents Executive Summary 17.1 Concepts and methods 17.2 Assessment of current adaptation practices 17.2.1 Adaptation practices 17.2.2 Examples of adaptation practices Box 17.1 Tsho Rolpa Risk Reduction Project in Nepal as observed anticipatory adaptation Box 17.2 Adaptation practices in the financial sector 17.2.3 Assessment of adaptation costs and benefits Box 17.3 Adaptation costs and benefits for agriculture in the Gambia 17.3 Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints 17.3.1 Elements of adaptive capacity Box 17.4 Adaptation costs and benefits in the water management sector of South Africa 17.3.2 Differential adaptive capacity 17.3.3 Changes in adaptive capacity over time Box 17.5 Gender aspects... More » IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group II: Chapter 18 Last Updated on 2010-04-05 00:00:00 Originally published by our Content Partner: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (other articles) Table of Contents Executive summary 18.1 Introduction 18.1.1 Background and rationale Box 18.1. Definitions of terms 18.1.2 Differences, similarities and complementarities between adaptation and mitigation 18.1.3 Structure of the chapter 18.2 Summary of relevant knowledge in the IPCC Third Assessment Report 18.3 Decision processes, stakeholder objectives and scale 18.3.1 The nature of the decision problem 18.3.2 Stakeholder roles and spatial and temporal scales 18.4 Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation and damages avoided 18.4.1 Trade-offs and synergies in global-scale analysis 18.4.2 Consideration of... More » </div>
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- America's Climate Choices